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Růstové faktory a colostrum.

George-Nascimento, C., Lowenson, Jonathan, Borissenko, M., Calderon, A., Medina-Selby, A., Kuo, J., Clarke, S., Randolph, A. Replacement of a Labile Aspartyl Residue Increases the Stability of Human Epidermal Growth Factor. Biochemistry 29 No. 41(1990) 9584 - 9591.

Antonio J. (1998) Can bovine colostrum enhance levels of IGF-1? Muscle and Fitness Magazine, 1998.

Ballard F, Wallace J, Francis G, Read L, Tomas F. (1996) Des (1-3) IGF-I: a truncated form of insulin-like growth factor-I. International Journal of Cellular Biology. 28:1085-1087.

Bhora F, Dunkin B, Batzri S, et al. (1995) Effect of growth factors on cell proliferation and epithelialization in human skin. Journal of Surgery Res. 59:236-244.

Bhora, Y, et al. Effect of growth factors on cell proliferation and epithelialization in human skin. Journal of Surgical Research 59(2):236-244 (1995). Fibroblast growth factor (FGF), IGF-1 and epithelial growth factor (EGF) are important factors in healing skin wounds. EGF in particular is capable of initiating epithelial growth.

Bricker D. (1991) Colostrum: Implications for accelerated recovery in damaged muscle and cartilage, prevention of some pathogenic disease. The American Chiropractor.

Cass TL. Insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1, Somatomedin C) blood levels are not associated with prostate specific antigen (PSA) levels or prostate cancer: A study of 749 patients. Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, WI.

Demarco C. (1998) Anti-aging breakthrough: Homeopathic growth factors. Let's Live.

Dohm, GL, et al. IGF-I-stimulated glucose transport in human skeletal muscle and IGF-I resistance in obesity and NIDDM. Diabetes 39(9):1028-1032 (1990). IGF-1 stimulates glucose transport by IGF-1 receptors in skeletal muscle, thus alleviating the hyperglycemia observed in non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM). Significantly, muscle from obese patients was resistant to this effect.

Donovan, SM, Hartke, JL, Monaco, MH, Wheeler, MB. (2004) Insulin-like Growth Factor-I and Piglet Intestinal Development. Journal of Dairy Science 87(E Suppl.):E46-54. Piglets suckling from IGF-1 transgenic sows (i.e. sows that have been transgenically altered to overexpress IGF-1 in their milk) showed increased villus growth and disaccharidase activity, indicating improved intestinal health.

Francis G, Read L, Ballard J, et al. (1986) Purification and partial sequence analysis of insulin-like growth factor-1 from bovine colostrum. Journal of Biochemistry. 233:207-213.

Francis G, Upton F, Ballard J, McNeil K, Wallace J. (1988) Insulin-like growth factors 1 and 2 in bovine colostrum. Journal of Biochemistry. 251:95-103.

Purup, S, Vestergaard, M, Pedersen, O, Sejrsen, K. (2007) Biological activity of bovine milk on proliferation of human intestinal cells. Journal of Dairy Research 74(1):58-65. Bovine milk contains a number of biologically active components that affect growth development of human intestinal tissue. The degree of activity depended on the stage of lactation.

Fryburg D. (1995) Insulin and insulin-like growth factor 1 enhance human skeletal muscle protein anabolism during Hyperaminoacidemia by different mechanisms. Journal of Clinical Investigations. 96:1722-1729.

Ginjala V, Pakkanen R. (1998) Determination of transforming growth factor-B1 (TGF-B1) and insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) in bovine colostrum samples. Journal of Immunoassay. 19:195-207.

Handsell KL, Baumrucker CR, Kensinger RS. (1993) Effects of elevated blood insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) concentration upon IGF-I in bovine mammary secretions during the colostrum phase. Journal of Endocrinology. 137:223-230.

Hyde, C, et al. Insulin-like Growth Factors (IGF) and IGF-Binding Proteins Bound to Vitronectin Enhance Keratinocyte Protein Synthesis and Migration. Journal of Investigative Dermatology 122(5):1198-1206 (2004). IGF-II binds directly to vitronectin, a component of the extracellular skin matrix, to enhance protein synthesis and migration by skin cells in wound healing and skin regeneration.

Marcotty C, Frankenne F, Van Beeumen J, Maghuin-Rogister G, Hennen G. (1991). Insulin-like growth I (IGF-I) from cow colostrum: Purification and characterization. Growth Regulation. 1(2):56-61.

Mero A, Kahkonen J, Nykanen T, Parviainen T, Jokinen I, Takala T, Nikula T, Rasi S, Leppaluoto J. Appl Physiol. 2002 Aug;93(2):732-9. Related Articles, IGF-I, IgA, and IgG responses to bovine colostrum supplementation during training. Journal of Applied Physiology, Vol. 83, No. 4, pp. 1144-1151, October 1997

Miers W, Barrett E. (1998) The role of insulin and other hormones in the regulation of amino acid and protein metabolism in humans. Journal of Basic and Clinical Physiology and Pharmacology. 9(2-4):235-53. .

Oz, HS, Ray, M, Chen, TS, McClain, CJ. (2004) Efficacy of a transforming growth factor beta 2 containing nutritional support formula in a murine model of inflammatory bowel disease. Journal of the American College of Nutrition 23(3):220-6. Mice with an experimentally-induced inflammatory bowel disease fed a diet rich in transforming growth factor beta-2 (TGF-ß2) gained more weight, did not develop diarrhea or prolapse, had lower pathological scores and lower serum amyloid (SAA). This study supports the use of TGF-ß2 diets in the treatment of Crohn’s disease.

Pakkanen R, Aalto J. (1997) Review paper: Growth factors and antimicrobial factors of bovine colostrum. International Dairy Journal. 7:285-297.

Rosenthal S, Brown E, Brunetti A, Goldfine I. (1991) Fibroblast growth factor inhibits insulin-like growth factor-II (IGF-II) gene expression and increases IGF-I receptor abundance in BC3H-1 muscle cells. Molecular Endocinology. 5:678-684.

Rudman, D.; et al. Effects of Human Growth Hormone in Men over 60 Years Old. N. Eng. J. Med. 323:1-6, 1990.

Rudman, D, et al. Effects of human growth hormone in men over 60 years old. New England Journal of Medicine 323(1):1-6 (1990). The decline in activity of the growth hormone-IGF-1 system may be related to the loss of lean muscle mass and increase in fat mass with aging. Administration of growth hormone to men over 60 years of age resulted in increased IGF-1 levels in the blood similar to that found in much younger men, increase lean body mass, decreased fat mass and an increase in skin thickness.

Russell, JW, Feldman, EL. Insulin-like growth factor-I prevents apoptosis in sympathetic neurons exposed to high glucose. Hormone and Metabolic Research 31(2-3):90-96 (1999). Using an experimental in vitro rat superior cervical ganglion model of diabetic neuropathy, high levels of glucose, such as are found in uncontrolled diabetes, inhibits neurite (cell processes growing from nerve cells in cultures) growth, reduction in neurite size, beading of neurites, neurite retraction and apoptosis (cell death) in neurons. This is reversed by IGF-1 which exhibits a neuroprotective effect on these neurons. This suggests that IGF-1 may be of use in preventing diabetic neuropathy in vivo.

Shimizu M, Webster C, Morgan DO, Blau HM, Roth RA. (1986) Insulin and insulin-like growth factor receptors and responses in cultured human muscle cells. American Journal of Physiology. 251:E611-5.

Shing Y, Klagsbrun M. (1987) Purification and characterization of a bovine colostrum-derived growth factor. Molecular Endocrinology. 1:335-338.

Sporn M, Roberts A, Shull J, Smith J, Ward J. (1983) Polypeptide transforming growth factors isolated from bovine sources and used for wound healing in vivo. Science. 219(4590):1329-31.

Shomali M, Wolfsthal S. (1997) The use of anti-aging hormones. Maryland Medical Journal. 46:181-186.

Tokuyama H, Tokuyama Y, Migita S. (1990) Isolation of two new proteins from bovine colostrum which stimulates epidermal growth factor-dependent colony formation of NRK-49F cells. Growth Factors. 3(2): 105-14.

Tollefsen S, Lajara R, McCusker R, Clemmons D, Rotwein P. (1989) Insulin-like growth factors (IGF) in muscle development. Journal of Biological Chemistry. 264(23):13810-7.

Ullman M, Ullman A, Sommerland H, Skottner A, Oldfors A. (1990) Effects of growth hormone on muscle regeneration and IGF-I concentration in old rats. Acta Physiological Scand. 140:521-525.

Watson DL, Francis GL, Ballard FJ. (1992) Factors in ruminant colostrum that influence cell growth and murine IgE antibody responses. Journal of Dairy Research. 59:369-380.

Tavakkol, A, et al. Expression of growth hormone receptor, insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) and IGF-1 receptor mRNA and proteins in human skin. Journal of Investigative Dermatology 99(3):343-349 (1992). Receptors for growth hormone and IGF-1 were isolated from human skin, indicating that skin cells may have the ability to react directly to growth hormone stimulation.

Sporn, et. al., 1983, Science, 219 pp. 1329-31: "Polypeptide Transforming Growth Factors (TGF A & B) and Epithelial Growth Factor Isolated from Bovine Colostrum Used for Wound Healing in Vivo"; Growth factors in bovine colostrum were found to be very effective in promoting wound healing. Implications for trauma, and surgical healing. External and internal applications implied

Noda, et. al., 1984, Gann, Vol. 75, 109-1 12. Japanese researchers discovered that Transforming growth Factors A and B (TGF A & B) in bovine colostrum were involved in normal cellular activities such as embryonic development, cell proliferation, and tissue repair. They also reported it promoted the synthesis and repair of DNA -the master code of the cell.

Allen and Rankin, 1990, PSEBM Vol. 194, Muscle Biology Group, Dept. of Animal Sciences and Physiology, Univ. of Arizona, Tucson, AZ. Reported: A. Fibroblast growth factor (FGF) stimulates proliferation but depresses differentiation of muscle cell growth. B. Insulin like Growth Factor (IGF-1) stimulates both. C. Transforming Growth Factor (TGF-b) slightly depresses proliferation and inhibits differentiation. Conclusion: When administered in combination these factors induce satellite cells to grow, regenerate and proliferate. Following, these cells will fuse with one another or the adjacent muscle fiber thereby increasing myonucles numbers for growth and repair. All three Factors found in Bovine Colostrum.

Skottner, Arrhenius-Nyberg, Kanje and Fryklund, 1990, Acta Paediatric Scand. (suppl) 367: 63-66, A. IGF-1 resulted in significant body weight gain and significant bone growth. 6. Topical administration to wounds resulted in more effective healing. C. Stimulated nerve regeneration.

Chaumeil, Liolet, Kogbe, 1994, Adv Exp. Med. Biol. Report of clinical study Vol. 350 pp. 595-599 Reported effective treatment of eye infections with bovine colostrum lactoserum i.e. reduction in glaucoma, scaring after injury or surgery, reduction in eye lesions.

Bhora, et. al. Jour. Surg. Res. 1995 V 59 p 236-44: Effect of growth factors on cell proliferation in human skin.: "The failure of chronic wounds to heal is a major medical problem. Studies suggest an important role for growth factors in promoting wound healing. Conclusion: Fibroblast growth factor IGF-1 and epithelial growth factor are important for wound healing." Treatment implications for trauma and surgical wounds accelerated healing possible.

Bhora, Y, et al. Effect of growth factors on cell proliferation and epithelialization in human skin. Journal of Surgical Research 59(2):236-244 (1995). Fibroblast growth factor (FGF), IGF-1 and epithelial growth factor (EGF) are important factors in healing skin wounds. EGF in particular is capable of initiating epithelial growth.

Sporn, et al. Polypeptide Transforming Growth Factors (TGF A & B) and Epithelial Growth Factor isolated from bovine colostrum used for wound healing in vivo. Science, 219, pp. 1329-31, 1983.